What is Domain Name System (DNS)? [Begineer’s Guide- 2020]

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Hey, dear Future Bloggers! Today, in this Article, you will learn all things related to Domain Name like- What is Domain Name System? and Domain Name. So, without wasting your precious time let’s get started :

What is a Domain Name?

Basically, Domain Name is the name of your website. It is used for finding and identifying computers on the Internet. Below, I will discuss it more.

A Domain Name is the address which helps users to get access to your Website.

Also Read :- [9+1] Important Tips before buying a Domain Name!

Such as- https://www.shivamnarayan.com is my Website URL (Uniform Resource Locator).

What is a Domain Name?
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Here, you can see URL contains 4 terms. 

?Http or Https are the Protocols.
? And, www is a Sub-Domain.
? example is your Domain Name or you can say Brand Name.
? .com is your Domain Extension or you can say TLD (Top-Level Domain).

Let’s know about all the terms of the URL.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol):- It is fundamental protocol used for transferring files on the Internet.

Sub-Domain:- It is the additional part or sort part of your main Domain Name. Such as (blog.example.com) is the sub-domain of your main Domain Name (example.com).

Domain Name:- It is the unique or brand name of your website.

Domain Extension:- It is the TLD (Top-Level Domain) or you can say the extension of your Domain Name. Like, .com, .net, .org, .edu, .biz, .in, .co, .co.in, .us, and many more.

Why is a Domain Name Important?

As you all know that A Domain Name is used for finding and identifying computers on the Internet. All Computer uses IP addresses, which are the series of number.

However, it is too difficult for the Humans to remember the Strings of Number (IP addresses). That’s why, Domain Names were developed by Paul V. Mockapetris together with Jon Postel and used to identify entities on the Internet rather than using IP addresses.

Hope, all your doubts are now solve regarding Domain Name. Before we move to DNS, you should help your Friends by Tweeting it :

What is Domain Name System (DNS)?

Domain Name System or DNS is a Naming Database which connects URLs with their IP addresses. With the help of DNS, you can easily visit any Website using Domain Name instead of using IP address i.e. you don’t have to remember the string of numbers of any particular website to visit.

Basically, when someone search for a Domain Name in the Browser then it sends the Query over the internet just to match the domain with their exact IP. Once this matched, its uses IP to show their website’s content.

Why is DNS Important?

Hope, you understand What is Domain Name System? now the question is Why it is Important?

DNS is not only important but also very important for you and your Visitors as it comfort the people from string of numbers (IP’s).

DNS is just like a Phone book for the Intenet.

How???

So, let us take an Example to understand it well :

Suppose, you want to Call someone with your Smartphone but the issue is that you know his Name but don’t know his telephone number. Now, what will you do?

Your answer should be – “I will use my Phone book to find the person telephone number with his Name“.

Right?

Just like this example, DNS provides the same service to the Internet.

When you visit https://shivamnarayan.com in any Browser, your computer uses DNS to fetch the website’s IP address of 01.02.03.004 (for example). Without DNS, you can only visit our website or any website by visiting its IP address directly, such that https://01.02.03.004.

You have learned “What is Domain Name System?” and why is DNS important? Now, let’s move to “How does Domain Name System (DNS) Works?”

How does DNS Work?

Basically, when you visit a domain address such as shivamnarayan.com, your computer proceeds series of steps to convet the Web address into a IP Address. This process happens every time you use a Domain Name, the DNS service finds the website and translate the name into its exact IP address.

Domain Name (String of Letters) are easier to remember than IP Address (String of Numbers), so when you type shivamnarayan.com into a Web Browser, you only have to remember the URL of the Website instead of its IP address.

Now, you have learnt “What is Domain Name System?“, Why is DNS important? and How does Domain Name System Works? Let’s learn the types of Domain Name System:

Types of Domain Name System (DNS) :-

Mainly, DNS servers fall into 4 Categories :

  1. Recursive Resolvers
  2. Root Nameservers
  3. TLD Nameservers
  4. Authoritative Nameservers

Let’s learn more about these in details :

What is a DNS Recursive Resolvers?

A Recursive Resolver which is also known as DNS Recursor is the first stop in the query of Domain Name System. The Recursive Resolvers acts as the mediator between a Client and a DNS nameserver.

It will get queries from a group of Clients and ask over the Internet in search of the answers. It is usually a service provided by ISPs and it serves several clients. It can store answers in its memory know as Cache for a period of Time.

What is a DNS Root Nameserver?

A root servers accepts a Recursive Resolver’s Query which includes a Domain Name, and the root nameservers responds by directing the Recursive resolver to a TLD nameserver, based on the extension of that domain (.com, .net, .org, and etc.)

What is a TLD Nameserver?

A TLD Nameserver maintains information for all the domain names that share a common Domain Extension, such as .com, .net, .org or whatever comes after the last dot in the URL.

For example, .com TLD nameserver contains information for every website that ends with ‘.com’.

If someone was searching for google.com, after receiving a response from a root nameserver, the recursive resolver would then send a query to .com TLD Nameserver, which would respond by pointing to the authoritative nameserver (see below) for that domain.

What is an Authoritative Nameserver?

An authoritative name server provides actual answer to your DNS queries. Authoritative name servers store DNS record information –usually the DNS hosting provider or domain registrar. It holds the actual DNS records (A, CNAME, PTR, etc) for a particular domain.

How are Domains mapped to IP?

Actually, Domains are mapped to IP just because of the Human Need as they are uncomfortable with the string the numbers, but computers need IP to access any website. That’s the main reason of using DNS.

Now, the question is “How does the DNS translate the Domain Name to the IP Addresses?

Domain Name Server
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The process of translating Domain Name to IP addresses is called the Domain Resolution. It takes 8 steps to complete this process.

Let’s know about all those 8 Steps happens in this process :

  1.  When you type the url of any web address into your browser, for example- www.amazon.com, your browsers send the message to the network asking for the help. This interchange is commonly know as “Query“.
  2. Your computer communicates a machine knows as Recursive Resolver (DNS Recursor) to find the previously cached IP Address. But, if it is a first time search from your browser then the machine repeatedely searches for that query until located.
  3. If the DNS recursor fails to find the address, they sends request for that query to the DNS Root name servers for Domain IP Address.
  4. Now, the root name servers direct your ISP through DNS hierarchy by referring your ISP recursive resolver to the necessary TLD nameserver by scanning the top level domain (TLD).
  5. Each and every TLD in the DNS has its own sets of nameservers. Once the recursive resolver has requested the IP address, they are referred on to the another applicable DNS. Here, the DNS servers are reviewing the second level domain (Domain Name/Brand Name)
  6. Your ISP (Internet Service Provider) queries reffered DNS nameservers for the suitable IP address. Each and every Domain Name has an appropriate set of DNS name servers responsible for holding the IP address and all the information related to the existing Domain.
  7. Your ISP provider’s resolver fetches the Domains “A” record for Amazon.com from the Authoritative name servers and stores it in its Cache in case of Future queries.
  8. At last, your ISP’s recursive servers deliver the “A” record to your computer. Now, your computers reads all that information of records about the domain and forwards the IP address to your Browser. Due to this, your browser will opens the connection to “www.amazon.com” so you can easily use that Website for any particular purpose.

The main thing is that this entire process takes only a few seconds depending on the servers speeds.

Hope, all your doubts relating What is Domain Name System? and Domain Name are now solved.

Conclusion

After reading this Article from Start till the end, I am damn sure that you will definetely understand about all the Topics covered here :

  • What is a Domain Name?
  • Why is a Domain Name Important?
  • What is Domain Name System (DNS)?
  • Why is DNS Important?
  • How does DNS Works?
  • Types of DNS?
  • How are Domains mapped to IP Address?

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What is Domain Name System (DNS)? [Begineer’s Guide- 2020] via @dmshivamnarayan
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